"How to grow" partner and primary school ""

"Two story introduction, digestion, absorption, re innovation"

Newspaper reporter Han Weizheng

11 2018 09 05:17 on the source of years: 138479.xyz: People's Daily Overseas Edition

In May 5, 2017, C919 first flight in Shanghai Pudong International Airport.
Xinhua News Agency reporter Ding Ting photo

"Renaissance" EMU in assembly production line.
Xinhua News Agency reporter Li Ziheng photo

C919 parked aircraft company Shanghai Aircraft Manufacturing Co. in assembly shop in China business.
Xinhua News Agency reporter Ding Ting photo

40 years of reform and opening up, "introduction, digestion, absorption, re innovation" has been one of the important China technology industry to narrow the gap with foreign. It was born in the beginning of reform and opening up a thousand things wait to be done, with the "market for technology" for the foreign exchange savings and a matter of expediency, "missing", no money to buy equipment China provides a "no way". With the hard China in the world of surprised eyes, from the teacher's "primary school acts" growth can equal cooperation partner, the "teacher" who has picked up the shelf, built a fence, "introduction, digestion, absorption and re innovation" in "self-reliance" public opinion atmosphere gradually quiet.

"Introduction, digestion, absorption and re innovation" mode, have been in the history of the development of China technology industry has left a thick and heavy in colours. Review the history of this classic rheological model, is not only the 40th anniversary anniversary of reform and opening up in the meaning of the title, but also because the story itself, also contain the mirror Chinese future development.


The China high iron A new force suddenly rises.

Chinese high iron is a classic case of introduction, digestion, absorption and re innovation "mode.

In 2004, the Ministry of Railways started bidding 140 200 kilometers per hour EMU, which was the world's largest one-time EMU tender. The world's best four high iron manufacturer of fashion, SIEMENS of Germany, France Alston, Kawasaki heavy industries, Japan Canada have to look at fiercely as a tiger does this big cake.

In this crucial bidding, the Ministry of Railways taken is called "centralized procurement strategy strategic buyers". "China way is our own monolithic, let foreign competition situation, so that we can grasp the initiative in the negotiations." Beijing Jiaotong University professor Wu Junyong in the late stage of high iron technical negotiations said.

Especially with the SIEMENS game was become a favourite tale. The SIEMENS company 2004 year 3.9 billion euros of technology transfer fee, to be epoch-making dropped to 8000 million euros in 2005, the legendary talks known as the contemporary international business negotiation classic. According to the "Guangming Daily" reported that in 2008 the story was written into the Stanford University economics course.

However, it was difficult to catch fish easily, easy introduction, digestion and absorption is difficult. Is afraid of spending huge amounts of technology transfer fee, finally only imported products, but not only the introduction of technology, with the ability to replicate, but do not have the ability to develop innovative. In order not to eat this loss, China manufacturers in the digestion and absorption of foreign technology, also have their own innovation system. Sifang company designed a method of a "1: 2: 17.". All cars, according to 1: 2: 17 ratio, three stages of production.

The first stage is called "they do we see: the vehicle completely in foreign production, domestic enterprises to send staff to receive training abroad, participate in assembly. The second stage is called "we do they see: spare parts imported from abroad, and then come back from the domestic enterprise training staff assembled in Chinese, by foreign technical experts to guide. The third stage is called "doing": China employees complete production process independently, and gradually replace the imported parts with domestic parts.

In this strategy, Chinese technicians learned from foreign cooperation there is very fast, beyond many people's expectations, so that many foreign media exclaimed Chinese "steal" foreign intellectual property rights. In this regard, Wu Junyong retorted: "what other techniques can be transferred, which must be retained, which transfer to what extent, the contract that are very clear. The transfer of the core technology is our first put forward clearly, they think profitable agreed cooperation, this is business, there is no stealing."

In this process, from Japanese and German, CRH2, CRH3 technology and CRH5 series EMU have been born. They are together to achieve the first generation of high iron China historical mission: from the introduction of digestion, absorption, and parts in china. But the localization is not independent, the localization represents only in domestic production, but not able to independently design, independent of the task depends on the second generation Chinese HSR implementation.

In 2008, relying on the "11th Five-Year" National Science and technology support program, the Ministry of science and technology Chinese actively involved in the development of high-speed rail, in cooperation with the Ministry of Railways has launched "the key technology research and equipment development of Chinese high-speed train of major projects, collaborative research institutes and colleges joint research. Finally in 2010 -2011 years, independent research and development of a new generation of high-speed EMU CRH380 series (the maximum operating speed of 380 km), in traction drive, network control and other core technology on a comprehensive innovation, get rid of the control of the introduction of technology source side, to achieve free port, the second generation Chinese high iron mission.

The core feature of the third generation Chinese high-speed rail is to establish a standard system Chinese, with a strong force of their practice for many years, mastery, from all over the world before the introduction of metallurgical technology in a furnace, the representative works in 2015, 2017 is offline formal operation of the CR400 series, they have a better known name: "the revival of no.". The Chinese high iron as well as the meaning of the name, a step towards the highest level in the world stage.

The vicissitudes of the civil aircraft

With high iron Chinese rely on "introduction, digestion, absorption, re innovation and shine, but in the process of civil aviation industry Chinese attempts to introduce foreign technology in hardships. Many old people in the aviation narrative, Chinese civil aviation industry history is like a dream, going around, temper forward, returning to the origin and starting again from the history of detours.

In the middle of last century 80, 10 project was shelved completely. At that time, the Ministry of aviation industry reference of Shanghai automobile factory "Santana model", developed a three-step strategy: the first step is to provide technology and equipment from abroad, Chinese responsible for assembly; the next step is to develop Sino foreign cooperation in the 100 seat regional jet service in about 2005 years; the second step is to design, manufacture of 180 class aircraft, in about 2010 years.

Even if 10 missed the first step, the civil aviation industry Chinese three-step strategy was also very successful. 1987, in the world aviation market has been occupied by Boeing and Airbus background, before the German MBB company active and Chinese contact, hope that the two sides jointly developed a regional aircraft advanced performance MPC75.

Developed countries offered technology transfer, joint development, this is a rare opportunity. This proposal has been attached great importance to Chinese aviation technology company. The two sides signed a 2600 million Mark technology transfer contract, China has sent a team of 176 people to learn. A member of Chinese, director of science and Technology Commission Office to fly among them was Chen Suining, he said, the German technology transfer of results to make all people find everything fresh and new design level and the development of the concept, the Chinese people also get a comprehensive upgrade. Two general designer Wu Guanghui, Chen Yingchun C919 and ARJ21, was both trained by MPC75.

Unfortunately, the unlimited potential of cooperation projects do not get more support from the competent authorities, because when the Ministry of aviation industry attention has been attracted by American McDonnell aircraft assembly plan of the past.

From 1986 to 1996, China Shanghai aircraft manufacturing company in cooperation with McDonnell assembled dozens of trunk aircraft. Although MPC75 missed, but also let Chinese and McDonnell cooperation in civil aviation industry to earn a pot of gold, but also the accumulation of important knowledge organization assembly of large aircraft modernization, improve the quality standard.

With the three step program gradually on the track, Chinese McDonnell and further deepened the cooperation, the parties intend to jointly produce 150 seat MD90 aircraft. When the China aviation industry smug, mobilize all the forces of the new plant, the purchase of equipment, personnel training, unexpected accident. 1997, McDonnell was the Boeing company merger, Boeing announced the entire production line shut down mcdonnell. This company let Chinese aviation industry lose investment.

With MD90 from grief, the civil aviation industry to airbus. Can not open the market situation of Airbus Chinese decisively to seize the opportunity, signed a joint production 100 seat regional jet AE100 protocol and China.

However, God once again with the China civil aviation people made a joke. In China buy 30 A320 series aircraft from Airbus, the Europeans suddenly face, put forward the technology transfer fee of more than $1 billion. In 1998, the negotiations stalled after long time, Airbus cannot simply to profit on the grounds, suspended on both sides of the AE100 contract.

To track the long-term development of aeronautical equipment of the Xinhua News Agency reporters Liu Jimei, "in a book to China" recorded aviation tragic scene:

In 1998, the AE100 project is dissolved, participated in the design MPC75 and AE100 project in Beijing facing the unknown future, farewell, they are extremely tragic for a drink of wine, a few people standing in the motherland under the sky cries: this life is probably no longer the development of civil aircraft! They stood under the blue sky of the motherland: Farewell embrace the blue sky of the motherland can not fly Chinese commercial aircraft?

As a warning for the future, Chinese aviation people give up on foreign teacher's fantasy, self reliant back to the origin and starting again. Aircraft seat ARJ21190 large civil aircraft C919 have independently developed the project launched. When in May 5, 2017, C919 large aircraft into the sky, people began to see, ARJ21 and C919 developed to carry the banner, but was shipped with the MPC75 10 old team.

The introduction of technology independent innovation service

Also adhere to the "introduction, digestion, absorption and re innovation" mode, China high-speed railway and civil aviation industry China why get different results?

In the view of Peking University Professor Lu Feng, the two fundamental difference lies in the introduction of technology process still retains the "independent product development platform". The absorbing ability of all the independent development as the premise, if there is no independent product development platform, you can only learn how to do, but it is difficult to understand why to do so, the result can only follow the advanced technology track."

One industry veteran it seems to confirm the view of railway. The original ARJ21 aircraft designer Wu Shi, 10 grounded, "let China loss is more than just a plane, it is a platform for the development of technological capability. But unfortunately, we are not in the same year to see this point." While the original Chinese Nanche Group Chairman Zhao Xiaogang also believes that Chinese high iron gorgeous appearance is not "suddenly, such as spring night, the China ultimately behind the independent development of" China Star "in history.

"After the civil aviation industry China decided to cooperate the United States assembled McDonnell aircraft developed alternative transport 10, its R & D system collapsed, and when the foreign direct control of the learning process China civil aviation industry, the introduction of becomes a risk." Lu Feng said, the China high iron, as product development platform to save relatively complete, large-scale introduction of technology can bring mature product experience, promote the formation of a complete industrial system, to become a platform for self promotion power.

(Yuan Bo Chang, commissioning editor: Malaysia)

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